On February 13, 1633, Italian philosopher, astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome to face charges of heresy. Galileo has been publicly advocating Copernican theory, which holds that the Earth revolves around the Sun. He will agree to what is essentially a plea bargain in April of that same year, and is placed under house arrest indefinitely by Pope Urban VIII. Galileo spent the rest of his days at his villa in Arcetri, near Florence, before dying on January 8, 1642. Recognized as one of history's foremost mind in the study of motion and astronomy, Galileo will nevertheless be regarded with contempt by the Catholic Church until the Vatican formally acknowledged its mistake in condemning him, in 1992. On February 13, 1920, the League of Nations recognizes the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland. Swiss neutrality actually dates back to the Congress of Vienna in 1815. It was a loose confederation of German-, French-, and Italian-speaking communities until 1798, when Napoleon conquered and unified the country as the Helvetic Republic and imposed a constitution, which was enforced by French occupation troops. Bitterly resented by the Swiss people, the French occupation ended in 1803, when Napoleon agreed to a new Swiss-approved constitution and withdrew his troops. Yet another constitution, this one adopted in 1848, reinforced the neutrality principle by outlawing Swiss service in foreign armies or the acceptance of pensions from foreign governments. After World War I, Swiss voters narrowly approved membership in the League of Nations, which - in addition to recognizing perpetual neutrality - established its headquarters in the city of Geneva. Switzerland maintains neutrality, along with a reputation for political and economic stability, to the present day. On the evening of February 13, 1945, the first in a series of Allied firebombing raids is launched against the German city of Dresden. Over the next two day, American and British bombers will drop 3,400 tons of explosives on the city called “Florence of the Elbe.” Eight square miles of the city are obliterated, and the death toll - impossible to accurately calculate due to the many refugees in the city - ranges from 25-35,000. Dresden was targeted for destruction following the Yalta Conference, where Allied powers agreed to strategic bombing of German industrial centers. Dresden hardly fit this description, but was targeted as it was believed to be an important communications link between the Nazi government and its armies on the Russian front. Critics say Dresden was more a cultural center with little strategic importance, and cite its destruction as the cautionary tale against targeting civilians in wartime.