On December 17, 1538, King Henry VIII of England is excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Paul III. Henry's differences with the church had begun 7 years earlier with the annulment of his marriage to his first (of six) wife, Catherine of Aragon. Paul's predecessor, Pope Clement VII, actively discouraged the annulment, and Henry responded by initiating reforms that led to the establishment of the Church of England. Henry appointed himself Supreme Head of the new church, and when he began to attempt to dissolve Catholic monasteries and convents, Paul had had enough. On December 17, 1941, Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel is relieved of duty as Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. Kimmel had been CINCPAC for less than a year, and came from the old school class of "battleship admirals", as opposed to the "carrier admirals" who believed air power would be indispensable in the upcoming, anticipated war with Japan. Following Pearl Harbor, Kimmel "requested" early retirement and avoided a likely court martial; in an "as told to" biography published in 1955, Kimmel claimed he was a scapegoat for the real person who was to blame for Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt himself, adding (with no proof offered) that FDR had prior knowledge of the attack. On December 17, 1933, the Chicago Bears beat the New York Giants 23-21 in the first National Football League championship game. Prior to '33, the league championship was awarded to the team with the best regular season record. Before the '33 season, new Boston Redskins owner George Preston Marshall suggested several rules changes, among them that the ten-team league be divided into two divisions, with the championship determined by a game between the two division winners. Before a crowd of about 26,000 in Chicago's Wrigley Field, the Bears scored the go ahead touchdown with under 2 minutes left on a trick play. Running back Bronco Nagurski took a handoff but pulled up behind the line of scrimmage to throw a jump pass to Bill Hewitt, a play they had run earlier in the game. The Giants defense converged, but Hewitt then added a second wrinkle, lateraling the ball to Bill Karr, who ran 31 yards for the game winning points.