On October 14, 1962, photographs taken by a U-2 spy plane reveal the presence of Soviet-made medium-range missiles —capable of carrying nuclear warheads— in Cuba, just 90 miles off the American coastline. They will be presented to President Kennedy two days later, touching off the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 14, 1892, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, by Arthur Conan Doyle, is published. Doyle's first story about his fictional detective creation, "A Study In Scarlet," was published in a Christmas annual 5 years earlier. Holmes was partially based on one of Doyle's medical school professors, who preached diagnosing ailments through observation of the symptoms and deductive reason. Never a successful doctor himself, Doyle wrote a series of Holmes stories in his spare time for The Strand magazine, which did so well he was able to give up his medical practice and begin writing full time. The book was the first collection of previously-published Holmes stories. On October 14, 1918, Corporal Adolf Hitler is temporarily blinded by a British gas shell at the Battle of the Ypres Salient in Belgium and is evacuated to a German military hospital in Pomerania. Having been turned down for military service in his native Austria as physically unfit, Hitler enlisted in the German army in 1914. He earned the Iron Cross at the First Battle of Ypres, was wounded in the leg in 1916, and would earn several more citations for bravery, including the Iron Cross 1st Class for “personal bravery and general merit” in August 1918 for single-handedly capturing a group of French soldiers hiding in a shell hole during the final German offensive on the Western Front. Germany surrendered to the Allies while Hitler was convalescing from the gas shell wound.