Just scratching the surface... these are a few LEGAL disparities, built into legal codes: Tax policies are structured against poor black Americans. Just one example, tax policy that allows deductions for mortgage interest but not rent disproportionately affect people of color. African Americans are more likely to live in urban areas where home ownership is far less common than rents and leases. Criminal law policies. Examples: Black Americans receive sentences 20% longer than white Americans for the same crime. Black felons lose their right to vote at a higher rate than white felons. And so on. Voter suppression laws make Black Americans wait in line longer, provide fewer polling places for Black Americans, reject voter applications for Black Americans at a much higher rate, gerrymander blacks into lesser representation and influence, etc. I won't even bother with the social disparities because they're practically endless. In a nutshell, ANY social benefit that doesn't account for wealth and education disparities helps to perpetuate and worsen the disparities. But you know what? You're not truly interested in how Blacks are disadvantaged in this country because that information is plentiful all over the internet. You wouldn't be asking me.